Bussiness activity


Waste water generated by this sector, is in direction relation with animal excrement, as well as surface cleaning of facilities.  The generated effluent has a high level of organic load, high contents of ammonia, nitrogen and phosphorus.  Other compounds derived from cleaning and disinfecting premises, such as ammonium, acids, phenols and alcohols can also be found.
Effluents from livestock farms, can also show contamination levels from microbiological sources.
Common treatments for this type of effluent comprises of two distinct stages: 
1. Separating solid and liquid fractions, by filtration or centrifugation.  The solid fraction is a recoverable waste, following different techniques, such as anaerobic digestion.
2. Liquid filtration must be processed with a biological treatment, endowed with nutrient removal.  Ultrafiltration MBR devices, show an appropriate behavior for this purpose. The liquid digestion of the effluent source (UASB ), is also a valid alternative for the treatment of such waters.
The main feature of this industry, is the high consumption of water in its production processes, which generate an effluent with a high organic load, as well as suspended solids and surfactants.  Byproducts from this productive activity(blood, viscera, skin, fat, etc..), are very diverse and with a high contamination potential.
Treatments consists of two stages. 
1. This is based on Electrocoagulation systems, which make it possible to significantly improve the purification performance of further biological treatment.
2. A biological treatment.  The biological process must include an efficient pre-treatment system, focused on separating oils, fats and suspended settleable solids, in order to yield good depuration performances
The dairy industry uses water for cleansing and purging of different tanks and processing facilities.  Water has a high organic load content, suspended solids, phosphorus, oils and fats.  This water shows pH, temperature and conductivity variations, which are a limiting factor for effluent treatment.
Treatments:  A conventional treatment for this type of water, must include the separation of fats and oils, removal of suspended solids by flotation and a biological treatment with nutrient removal.
Generally, the food industry sector consumes a high volume of water in production processes, as well as having variable water quality.  It is therefore desirable, to provide the installation with homogenisation tanks.  The tanks are intended to laminate the water flow and load water into the treatment plant, following which investment and operating steps can be reduced.
The most suitable complete treatment for waste water in this sector, consists of a two-stage biological process:
1. An anaerobic treatment
2. An anerobic treatment, enabling nutrient removal.
Waste water from this activity has a high level of inorganic suspended solids and heavy metals, as well as thickeners, enamels and glue remnants, as a result of manufacturing materials.
Effluents may also come from cleaning and purging  gas washing facilities using the wet method.  Enamelling produces large quantities of boron, in the waste water from this industrial sector.
Conventional treatments can achieve the removal of desirable levels of suspended solids and organic matter.  However, more efficient treatments are required, such as electro-coagulation in organic compound (e.g. thickeners and glues) removal, due to the active oxidation capacity of these treatments.
High boron levels require the application of membrane or ion exchange resin treatment.
Waste water from this industry comes mainly from pulp cleaning, drying, refrigeration, sealing and from temporary white-water (or pulp) discharges.
In addition to its high levels of organic matter content and suspended solids, this typology of waste water has halogenated organic compounds, as well as specific heavy metals.
Paper manipulation industries use high levels of water, so its treatment should essentially seek the reuse of the waste water.  This can be achieved with high quality standard levels by using membrane technology.  However, advanced oxidation techniques should be considered with industry effluents, due to their high level of recalcitrant compounds.  The types of compounds in waste water and the treatment costs must be taken into account to choose the appropriate oxidation technique.
Waste water from this industry comes mainly from bleaching, maceration, dyeing, printing and cleaning.  The typology of the waste water depends on the specific manufacturing process used, so this is an extremely heterogeneous effluent: it has both biodegradable and non biodegradable organic load, oils, polyaromatics hydrocarbons, halogenated organic compounds, dyestuffs and surfactants.
There is a wide variety of treatments, which are applied according to the type of industry process used.
Nevertheless, technologies based on selective separation with membrane offer a more consistent quality of effluent.  Similarly, this type of technology removes a wider range of textile industry waste water compounds: surfactants, chelators, fixatives, dyestuffs and organo-chlorine compounds.

The effluents from landfill run off are diverse, in terms of the type of composition of wastes, the age of the tank and the landfill constructional properties.

This type of waste water generally has high levels of organic load, alkalinity, suspended matter, nitrogen, phosphor, oil and grease, chlorides and heavy metals.

The waste water from landfills and leachates are diverse, particularly depending on both the type of fluid that is filtered and the seasonal and environmental conditions; this is the reason why it is so complex tidentify the correct combination of treatments that must be applied.
Study designs must take into account the different conditions in which the leachates arrive at the treatment plant, and consider all the possible alternatives.
The waste water of this industrial sector derives from the cleaning of the facilities used in  synthesis processes, heating and refrigerating system purging, as well as cleaning the process waters.
These types of waters are very diverse, but they generally have high levels of inorganic nitrogenous compounds, heavy metals, organic acids, salts, suspended solids and many kinds of toxic compounds.
Waste water from the pharmaceutical industry usually has low levels of extremely recalcitrant compounds and contaminants, that must be separated from the effluent, via selective ultra-filtration membrane techniques, nanofiltration and inverse osmosis.
Waste water rejections from this type of processes have a high level of these compounds. Such processes generate water waste with a high level of recalcitrant compound content. This may be  inactivated  by using specific advanced oxidation techniques.
This industry consumes large quantities of water, mainly due to the refrigeration processes and to the maintenance operations of facilities.
This kind of waste water may have significant amounts of benzene hydrocarbons, phenols, ammoniac, oils, heavy metals and low biodegradability organic load, depending on the facilities features and maintenance operations.
The petrochemical industry generates waste effluents with high levels of oil and grease that should be properly disposed of via flotation separation.  Heavy metals, also present in this kind of effluent, must be separated via chemical precipitation treatments, which results in maximum efficiency.
Lastly, low biodegradability compounds may be removed by appropriate use of anaerobic digestion treatments.
Technologies based on selective separation with membrane can be also an alternative, yet they produce large quantities of highly polluted waste water rejections.
Galvanic industry:
Ferrous metal rolling industries  produce liquid effluents during the surface cleaning process, the preparation of pickling baths and degreasing, draining and refrigerating.
Some of these processes generate effluents with inconsistent PH values, high levels of grease contents, suspended solids and heavy metals.
These kind of effluents have a high amount of oils and grease, as well as heavy metals, so the precise selection of the pre-treatments and physic-chemical treatments to be applied is crucial.
Nevertheless, there is also poor biodegradable organic compound synthesis, which may be successfully treated via electrocoagulation techniques, as an alternative to conventional physic-chemical treatment.
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