Hidroquimia offers different technologies for the treatment of water / effluent depending on the specific problem in each case. We evaluate different solutions such as:
- PHYSICOCHEMICAL TREATMENTS
- BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
- ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES
- ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNIQUES
- MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
- SLUDGE TREATMENT
These treatments aim to separate the colloidal and suspended particles from the wastewater by adding coagulant and flocculating reagents.
The separation of the solid and liquid phases is done by decantation or flotation, using suitable devices for this. These separation techniques allow both the removal of suspended matter and precipitation of heavy metals.
They are systems of stabilization of the organic matter by the application of active biomass which is constituted by microorganisms that degrade soluble organic matter. Technologies based on biological treatments are very diverse, among which we highlight the following:
MBR SYSTEM (Biological Membrane Reactor): Devices based on the combination of a biological reactor and a filtration system (micro or ultra-filtration). The separation of the sludge and the effluent is performed through a filtration barrier, which allows increasing the solids concentration of the reactor. This system allows reducing the space of the installation.
CBR SYSTEM (Rotary biological contactors). The active biomass is fixed in circular support plates, equipped with a rotating device, which are partially submerged in the water to be treated. The system does not require forced air supply or system mud recirculation, so the energy consumption is considerably lower than traditional systems.
SBR System (Sequential Discontinuous Reactor): The phases of biomass activation and phase separation are performed in the same tank. The system makes it easier to operate, reducing the costs of infrastructure investment. The system is adapted to the treatment of industrial waste water allowing the elimination of nutrients.
The electrochemical treatment of waste water is based on the oxidative degradation of organic compounds by anodic reactions, where the electric energy becomes the decontamination vector. These techniques allow the treatment of a large diversity of compounds and recalcitrant substances dissolved in industrial wastewater. The most widespread and proven technique is ELECTROCOAGULATION.
This treatment is based on two fundamental mechanisms. On the one hand there is a coagulation and formation of the floc as in the physical-chemical treatments, and on the other, an oxidative degradation of the recalcitrant organic matter occurs.
Electrocoagulation treatments allow occupying a smaller surface compared to the conventional treatments. They are also suitable as a primary treatment prior to a biological purification treatment, since they allow to increase the level of biodegradability and to improve the purifying performance of the system.
They are based on the use of radicals of high oxidizing power that allow the degradation of recalcitrant compounds. Additionally these oxidation processes have a disinfecting effect by removing the microorganisms from the aqueous medium.
The typologies of applied technologies are very diverse and their use depends on the characteristics of the water to be treated. The most common non-photochemical processes are ELECTRO-OXIDATION and FENTON.
As a complement, the most widespread photo-chemical treatments are UV RADIATION, OZONE, PHOTO-FENTON and PHOTO-CATALYSIS with TiO2.
There is a broad spectrum of liquid and solid phase separation treatments in which selective semi-permeable membranes are employed. The membranes of MICROFILTRATION and ULTRAFILTRATION are mainly focused to remove suspended matter.
The NANOFILTRATION and INVERSE OSMOSIS treatments consist of the separation of dissolved compounds and ions which are retained in a liquid phase so-called “rejection”. There are several types of membranes. The most used organic membranes are made of polyethylene, polypropylene, cellulose acetate and polyamide. Among the ones made with inorganic materials, the ceramic ones are becoming relevant. The use of ceramic membranes has acquired greater relevance due to its characteristics of mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance and increasing selectivity.
A treatment based on electrochemical principles and membrane separation is the ELECTRODIALISIS which allows the selective separation of ions by the application of an electric field that passes through the mass of water to be treated. The recirculation of the treated water allows reaching high levels of elimination of the salinity of the water.
The most widespread applications in the industrial sector are the reuse of wastewater for different stages of the process.
There are two typologies of processes to be applied in response to the needs of dehydration or stabilization of the sludge.
Dehydration comprises the processes of thickening and dehydration. The most common equipment for drying mud is BAND FILTERS, PRESS FILTERS and CENTRIFUGAL FILTERS.
The stabilization of the sludge consists of the process of mineralization of the organic matter contained in the sludge. The mineralization of the mud by means of chemical methods more widespread is the LIME ADDITION. Biological stabilization is performed by AEROBICDIGESTION and ANAEROBIC DIGESTION. BIOGAS can be obtained with anaerobic digestion that can be used for self-production of electric energy.